A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

A pilgrim for sabarimala

Sabarimala Vruthanushtanam

Sabarimala is a famous pilgrim centre.  Lord Ayyappa otherwise known as Kaliyuga Varadan is the chief deity of Sabarimala.  It was considered as a holy act to observe vrutha (penance) and to undertake Sabarimala pilgrimage.  Those who observe such vruthas were called Ayyappan.  Women were not allowed to undertake Sabarimala pilgrimage or to mount Sabarimala.


Sadya is the grand feast organised in connection with celebrations, festivals, marriages and other auspicious functions.

Sakunam (omens)

The belief that the omens that we see at the time of starting a journey influence its result was in force from the very early period itself.  Certain things were considered as bad and others good.  This is known as Sakunam Nokkal. There are good and bad Sakunams. If we see bad Sakunam we have to return back to the starting place, sit a while and continue the journey. Seeing a single Brahmin while commencing the journey is a bad omen, whereas two Brahmins is good.  The things of omen are classified as follows in the Malabar Manual

Good Omens
: Curd, raw rice, honey, ghee of cow, lead, sulphur, metal filter, sound of bell, vilakku (lamp), lotus, karuka grass, raw fish, meat, grain powder, ripe furits, sweets.

Bad Omens:  A handicapped person or blind, widow, salt, donkey, pieces of rope, broken vessels, screaming sounds, deep yelling, sneezing, cursing and sudden shivering and falling.

A crow flying left or rightwards is a good omen.  A black cat running or jumping across is bad.  Flowers and bangles are good omens.  A cow with rope is also a good omen.


Samavarthanam is one of the Shodashacharangal of Namboothiris.  Samaavarthanam is the occasion of the boy's return to normal life after education.  It is performed after the age of 14 years


When Brahmins of Kerala became the masters of temples, their political influence also increased.  Gradually they became landlords.  To maintain their property in tact and to avoid its division, they practiced the theory that the eldest of their son alone wouldl marry from the same caste and others from Nair classes. This practice is known as Sambandham.  Though Brahmins considered Sambandham as one of the 64 Anacharams (social do-nots), this type of alliance existed for centuries. Gradually Sambandham became common within Nair community also. Robin Jeffri says: “Sambandham means simple nair marriage ceremony involving presentation of a cloth by a man to woman. In ancient Kerala it appears that both men and women could have Sambhandam with more than one person at the same time.  Marriages contracted and ended with considerable ease.  This was called Sambandham and a woman might have Sambandham with a number of men at the same time.  Either man or woman could end the Sambandham with little formality” (The Decline of Nayar Dominance).
However, the matrimonial alliance of females was not so rigid.  Those who came into union with Brahmins maintained their moral values and kept their standards.

The legal validity for Sambandham marriage came to an end with the enactment of the Nair Regulation Act of M.E.1100 (1924 A.D.).  Up to this, there was no validity for their Sambandhams.  The new regulation prohibited them to own and disown wives at their pleasure.  Certain conditions were also laid out for divorce etc.

“In a Namboothiri family, only the oldest brother was allowed to marry; he could marry up to four Namboothiri women. The younger brothers were allowed to enter into relationships with Nair women. The Nair woman would then have two husbands (a Nair and a Namboothiri) and in essence, a system of polyandry came into being. However, as a consequence of this practice, the number of Namboothiris declined and the number of Nairs increased because the children born in a Nair-Namboothiri marriage would belong to the Nair woman's family. The Sambandham practice was marginal and existed only for a short period of time. It does not exist today”  says Wickiepepdia.

relates to Nair marriage.  It is known so in South Malabar, Kozhikode, Ponnani, Kochi and in some parts of Travancore.  The Sanskit words like Sambandham and Bandhavam came to common use after the Aryan domination. In earlier days marriage denoted the grand function organised on the eve of Thalikettu.  The marriage among Nairs was usually called as Pudavakoda, Pudakamuri, Uzham Porukkal etc.  Sambandham was known as Pudamuri, Uzhamporukkuka and Vidaram Kayaruka in North Malabar; Gunadhoshm in South Malabar and Kidakka Kalyanam in certain areas of Palakkad. The functions related to this were very simple.  The bridegroom arrives in the bride’s residence on the appointed day and time along with his near relatives. The bride’s brother will wash the feet of the bridegroom and then he enters the padinjatta (main room of the house) and gave four or eight cloths, betel wine and areca nut to the bride.  After food, the bride’s aunt leads the groom and bride to the Maniyara (room for the married couple).  The groom will leave to his residence the next day or after one or two days.  When he comes with his friends for the second time, the bride also will be taken to the groom’s residence either by himself or by the women of his family. It is interesting to note that the functions like Thalikettu (tying thali-gold ornament around bride’s neck) Mothiram aniyal (exchange of rings) and garlanding were not there in Pudavakoda. Those attending the functions will be less than twenty.  The person who gave the pudava was known as Gunadoshakkaran.

The Pudamuri of North Malabrar was celebrated in a grand manner.  After comparing the horoscopes and fixing a date the bridegroom and his relatives and friends proceed to bride’s residence after sun set.  The bride’s relatives will arrange a reception to the party.  After feast, the astrologer declares the auspicious time for Pudamuri.  Then the groom will be taken to padinjatta (the main room of house).  Nilavilakku, Ashtamangalyam, paddy tender leaf of coconut, bow, mirror etc will be placed in the room.  The bride who is well adorned with various types of ornaments will be led to this room.  The bridegroom will give pudava (new cloth) to the bride who is facing to the eastern direction.  The functions of pudamuri will end for that day.  Next day the grooms relative will take the bride to grooms house after attending the function known as ‘vettilakettu’.

Uzham Porukku and Vidaram Kayaral were the special type of marriages in North Malabar.  Pudamuri was an expensive affair and therefore all cannot afford this.  Therefore, some depend on Uzham Porukku.  The functions were same as that of pudamuri but they were less expensive and conducted in a small scale.

Giving way of pudava was not done in the Sambandham of South Malabar and Kidakka Kalyanam of Palakkad.  Instead of Pudava, cash will be given.  The bride will not be taken to the bridegroom’s residence.  Therefore, there will not be any reception.


Sayanapradikshnam is an offering in temples for the relief from illness as well as for fulfillment of desired aspiration.  After lying on the floor of the temple in a praying mood one has to roll round the temple pradishkshna (round) way.  Usually three or more round are taken,


The practice of taking the idol of Gods to outside the sanctum sanctorum every day is known as Seeveli.  There are different types of seevelis like Ethritha Seeveli, Uccha Seeveli and Athazha Seeveli.  It was Sreebhoothabali that was converted as Seeveli.


Shodashacharangal is the sixteen rites to be performed by the male members of Namboothiri community. Without performing the shodashacharangal a Namboothiri will not become a real Brahmin. Female members of the community are also expected to follow certain among these rites. The sixteen rites are: (1) Sekom, (2) Pumsavanam, (3) Seemantham, (4) Vishnubali, (5)Jathakarma,(6) Namakarana, (7) Nishkramanom, (8) Annaprasanam, (9) Choulam, (10)Karnavedham, (11) Upanayanam, (12) Vedarambhom, (13) Kesantham, (14) Samavarthanam, (15) Vivaham, and (16) Adhanam.


The vrutha (penance) observed on Monday is known as Somavaravrutham.  It is beneficial for married life.  Prayer at Siva temple has to be done in the morning.  Fasting is to be performed in daytime.  During dusk, temple visit is a must.  Somam is equal to “Sa + Uma” meaning to worship God Siva with Uma (Parvathy). It is believed that Parvathy observed Somavaravrutham to get Lord Siva as her husband.
Designed by Limras & Maintained by N.A.I.R.S   Best View 1024 x 768